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Cox Characters
Conclusions to Confusions

Part 5: Appendix 4

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Geography Section

intro and maps by David W. Cox



Map: early 19th century Ohio Valley

Early 19th-century
Ohio River settlements
and claims


"Stone-kicking" as my father calls it, involves scouting cemeteries and careful examination of tombstones, which as we all know, contain a wealth of information about the resources, beliefs and family traditions.

This book (turned website) includes old maps as well as maps specially re-drawn to help researchers and curious readers to go to locate or reach the places mentioned in this book. As the maps are scattered throughout these pages, it would be tedious to unite them all here on one page without their context which helps place the mass of information into its proper geographical, as well as historical perspective. Therefore, only a few maps not appearing elsewhere are given in this appendix.

Unless otherwise indicated, the maps that I have drawn are not to scale.

Political boundaries in the early frontier period of American history were not as fixed and definite as one would expect. Nor was the frontier as fixed as most people commonly believe.

Michael Cox, Sr., lived for 46 years in what is now Brownsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania. But his "address" changed many times, though the farm never moved. Before his arrival, the region was hotly disputed frontier territory. The French and Indian War ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, but skirmishes were to continue in the region for years to come. Michael earned a reputation as a valiant Indian fighter. When Michael and his family arrived in 1769, his Fruit Hill farm was in territory claimed by both Pennsylvania and Virginia's District of West Augusta. Virginia eventually gave it up to Pennsylvania. From then on, Pennsylvania authorities redefined county lines as populations moved, migrated and changed the face of America's frontiers.

Hopefully our maps will be an invitation to head on out and enjoy some serious stone kicking!



Kudos to the US Library of Congress for its map collections made available over the Internet. A wealth of information is available on your own desk with a few clicks by visiting their site. I highly encourage you to go explore. At the time of this writing the web site's name is The Library of Congress: American Memory. The address is Check their link for 19th century panoramic maps. They are wonderful!




Map: District of West Augusta

The District of West Augusta
disputed territory


Virginia Land Grants in Pennsylvania

by Raymond M. Bell

Southwestern Pennsylvania was claimed by both Pennsylvania and Virginia at the time of the Revolution. Pennsylvania began giving land grants in 1769. This came to an end about 1774, when the dispute with Virginia heightened. In 1779 and 1780, Virginia granted land certificates to settlers in the disputed territory.

Nearly 830 were granted in what is now Pennsylvania. The certificates (mostly for 400 acres) listed the name of the applicant, date of certificate, date of settlement and location (generally by name of stream). After the boundary dispute was settled Pennsylvania resumed land grants about 1784. Two types of grants were made: those based on Virginia Certificates, which were honored by Pennsylvania if there was no prior claim, and those granted directly based on Pennsylvania claims.

In 1776, Virginia had set up three counties: Yohogania, north of a line drawn from Follansbee to Washington to Brownsville to Uniontown: Ohio, south of Yohogania and west of a fine drawn from Washington slightly southwest, and Monongalia, south of Yohogania and east of Ohio [these three counties made up the District of West Augusta].

In granting certificates to settlers in these counties in 1719 and 1780, Virginia required the settlers to list the bona fide date of settlement on the land. The original list of certificates for Yohogania and Ohio counties is preserved at Morgantown in the West Virginia Collection at West Virginia University Library.

The Monongalia list apparently was destroyed by fire before 1800. A reconstructed list for the Pennsylvania part of Monongalia County has been made from the township warrant maps of Greene, Washington and Fayette counties (W. F. Horn, The Horn Papers, vol. 3 [Waynesburg, Pa., Greene County Historical Society, 1945]). It has not been possible to find the dates of settlement, and townships have been published in The National Genealogical Society Quarterly, vol. 45 (1957), pp. 132-36.

A study of the dates of settlement as listed for Ohio and Yohogania counties is interesting. For Ohio County they are:


George Cox 1774 Ohio River
Israel Cox 1776 Buffalo Creek
Peter Cox* 1773 Buffalo Creek
John Cox 1774 Peters Run
Joseph Cox 1774 Pigeon Run
Gabriel Cox 1769 Monongahela R
Gabriel Cox 1777 Monongahela R.
Gabriel Cox 1777 Monongahela R.

[* This Peter Cox is apparently not one of our ancestors]



Map: Mason-Dixon Line

Map 18:
The Mason-Dixon Line
per state boundaries in 1784

Uniontown and Fayette County Pennsylvania
by Walter "Buzz" Storey

The Mason and Dixon line is one of the imperishable names in the American experience. Conceived to settle a colonial boundary dispute, it has passed into history and folklore as the traditional dividing line between North and South. And it wasn't accomplished without trouble in this area.

The line is the southern boundary of Fayette and Greene counties, separating Fayette from Garrett County in Maryland, and Preston and Monongalia counties in West Virginia, and Greene from Monongahela.

The Mason and Dixon Line originated as a means to settling a border battle between Pennsylvania and Maryland. Two young English astronomers and mathematicians, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon were called upon in 1763 to survey the line.

They started with a circle drawn on a 12-mile radius from New Castle, Delaware, which had been designated as the northern boundary of Delaware.

From there, they headed on a straight line to the west, first through settled farmland but soon into the wild country, "shooting the stars" and keeping a wary eye out for Indian attacks.

Their destination was a point in the wilderness "five degrees of longitude: west from the Delaware River, which had been declared in the original land grant to the Penns as the western limit of Pennsylvania."

The little expedition toiled over the mountains, all going reasonably well until they reached the Monongahela River. At that point, their escort of friendly Iroquois began to get nervous about encroaching on lands claimed by the Delawares and Shawnees, even though they were the overlords of the other tribes.

The surveyors proceeded nevertheless, as far as Dunkard Creek (whose meandering course they crossed three times) at the present site of Mount Morris to Greene County. Hostile Indians stopped them there, 232 miles along in their journey but 23 miles short of their objective.

Indians weren't the only people who took a dim view of the boundary survey. Maryland acquiesced readily enough, settling the border all the way to the point where the three states of Pennsylvania, Maryland and present day West Virginia meet just south of Markleysburg.

Virginia was another matter. Its leaders, who had originally sent George Washington out in 1753 to stake their claim, said that this section was theirs -- and they were unhappy about Pennsylvania surveyors running a line through it. Virginia claimed the land now covered by Fayette, Greene and Westmoreland counties, and parts of Allegheny and Beaver. They first set up the District of West Augusta, then the counties of Monongalia, Yohogania, and Ohio.

Pennsylvania countered by establishing Westmoreland County and for several years parallel courts and county offices were conducted, punctuated by sharp clashes between rival groups of settlers. The dispute was finally settled in 1780, when Virginia accepted the Mason and Dixon Line and the prospect of long frontage along the Ohio River. But the fussing wasn't over yet.

In 1782, Col. Alexander McClean, the noted surveyor from Uniontown, who had worked as an assistant under Mason and Dixon in the original survey, was commissioned to complete the line. At Dunkard Creek, he ran into an irate mob of Virginians who had settled in the present Greene County area. Many Virginians had moved northward into the present area of Greene and Washington, following rumors that the western boundary of Pennsylvania would be the Monongahela River.

Greatly annoyed, McClean appealed for militia (that day's equivalent of the National Guard.) They stopped the rioting and the settlers were pacified when Pennsylvania promised to recognize their Virginia land grants. (Another move by settlers in what is now Washington County to create a new state, out of parts of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Ohio, with the capital at Pittsburgh, was short-lived.)

In 1784, McClean completed the Mason and Dixon Line to its original destination, the point that is now the southwestern corner of Greene County.

From there, McClean turned due north to the Ohio River west of Pittsburgh -- thus creating the Virginia (now West Virginia) Panhandle. He didn't stop there but continued surveying on a line north to Lake Erie, delineating the entire western boundary of Pennsylvania (except for one small portion which had previously been mapped.)

The Mason and Dixon Line was resurveyed in 1863, after West Virginia became a state during the Civil War, and again in 1902. No serious discrepancy was found in either case -- the Mason and Dixon Line was an extraordinary accomplishment, as was McCleans follow-up work.



The Great Fire in Ardmore, Indian Territory
introduction by David W. Cox

Purcell Register 1895

My father, Kenny Ray Cox, suspects that his great-grandparents may have mysteriously disappeared for a certain time, in a tragedy such as the great 1895 fire in Ardmore. While this is plausible, numerous questions remain unanswered. For example, could they have been in Ardmore that night? The newspaper article below, recounts the pain and anguish of "a city in ruins." Unfortunately, it does not contain any information on the whereabouts of our ancestors, but it does offer valuable information for genealogists interested in the Ardmore, Oklahoma area. The devastating blaze caused damage to J. A. Cox's racket store and to Shaddick & Cox's blacksmith shop. Who were these individuals named Cox? It seems most unlikely that they of any relation to William N. and Ellen Cox.

Friday, April 26th, 1895


From Which Ardmore Will
Rise to More Resplendent
Greatness - The Fire and
its Effects

From the Ardomoreite:
Thursday's sun sank on a bustling city, peopled by a happy prosperous population. Magnificent brick structures and extensive stocks of merchandise told the tale of past and present prosperity. With nothing to fear and with no presentiment of an impending calamity, this happy, prosperous people left their various places of business, repaired to the their several homes and at the usual hours lay down to sleep and pleasant dreams.

Outside all was well; the stars from a clear sky looked down in their brightness on the fairest city within the dominion of the Indian Territory. The invisible watchman from the towers of the blue vault of heaven seemed to proclaim the cheerful tidings of all is well. The ARDMOREITE on Thursday afternoon had visited its usual haunts, but it carried no tidings of the morrow. No forebodings of ruin and desolation at the destructive hand of the dread fire fiend found utterance or lodgment in its forecasts for the future. Alas, how treacherous and fickle the plans and anticipations of the future! The above picture is of Ardmore as she stood forth Thursday at the close of business in her pride and grandeur as the wonder of the reading and calculating world. To draw the picture of Friday morning is a task which fails our imaginative ability.

Where stood our stately buildings were only smoking smouldering ruins, surrounded by grim, haggard and tottering walls. Hundreds of thousands of dollars, the accumulation of year of toil, had gone up in fire and smoke. It was 1 o'clock Friday morning when a fusillade from guns and pistols aroused the sleeping inhabitants to a sense of the situation. Thousands of people rushed madly forth and to the scene of destruction. From that hour until the gray dawn of morning, brave hands and heroic hearts fought against fate and the elements all with but little avail. To go into the details of the origin and extent of the fire is not our purpose, for this issue of the ARDMOREITE is gotten out under difficulties and was only made at all possible through the fraternal and highly appreciated courtesy of the Purcell Register.

To say that the burnt district will be rebuilt is only to utter a foregone conclusion and assert a positive fact. And Main street will be a solid array of brick and stone. No wooden houses will mar its beauty or endanger its safety. Of course for immediate temporary purposes, board shanties will be erected, but a contract has been signed for their early replacement by stone and brick. Another and splendid result will be the widening of the street twenty four feet and reducing it to a uniform grade. So we see that with all the heavy losses good results will follow.

Of our own personal loss we will say it was complete and fell heavily upon us, but with the aid of partial insurance and good credit we will replace our old plant with a new and much more valuable one, so instead of the ARDMOREITE dying it will only be replaced by the finest office in the Indian Territory. Our order has already been placed and by this time the material is shipped.
We will continue to occupy the field and to issue the best daily and weekly paper ever circulated in this country. Our job department cannot be excelled.

Right here we want to say that the many kind words and heartfelt regrets expressed by our friends has made Ardmore and her progressive people, next to our family circle and our God, the nearest and dearest objects in our affections.

The names of firms and individuals are given in the appended list:

A. Moss, dry goods.
Charles Simmons, billiard hall.
J. N. Barall, general merchandise.
Barber shop.
McGee's meat market.
A. Kloski, two stores - grocery and dry goods.
W. F. Whittington, two story brick, dry goods and groceries.
J. A. Mays, insurance office
N. H. McCoy's collecting agency
M. Wheeler, groceries and feed
Tom Nolard, billiard hall.
Roe's meat market.
J. H. Palmer's restaurant.
Burch & Anderson's opera house, two story brick.
Kerney & Wyes, hardware.
W. A. Payne, groceries.
Williams & Pennington, two story brick building.
Brown's section house.
Dr. Von Keller's office.
Dr. J. L. Littell's office.
Dr. J. L. Wood & Son, dentists.
Alliance Courier, total loss.
Ardmore Job Printing House, J.W. Golledge, proprietor, total loss.
Will Boyd's sleeping apartment.
Major G. T. Glenn's sleeping apartment.
Wind-Bag newspaper, Stephens & Co., total loss.
Ramsey & Ross, druggists.
K. Carson, the jeweler.
Joe Biggar's fruit stand and lunch house.
Joe's fruit stand.
Davis' barber shop.
Texas billiard hall
H. Conley, shoe maker.
J. L. Johnson, saddlery & harness.
J. A. Morgan, sewing machine agency.
Dr. J. F. Robinson, general merchandise.
J. W. Davenport, groceries.
F. Pycatt's meat market.
I. Goldsmith, cigar maker.
Charley Durie, agricultural implement dealer.
J. A. Cox's racket store.
Central hotel, Mrs. Holder proprietress, two story frame.
J. Stofla, merchant tailor.
E. S. Wiseman, general merchandise, two story brick.
John Fleming's law office.
John Hinkle's law office.
Robert H. West's law office.
T. H. Parker, jeweler, two story brick.
Commissioner A. Walcott's office.
McKelvy & Hill's collecting agency.
Hyden & Jackson, groceries, two story brick.
J H. Stauffenberg, merchant tailor.
Bivins & Williams, general hardware, wagons, buggies, etc., two story brick.

Johnson, Cruce & Cruce, law office.
J. F. Gwinn, general blacksmith.
T. B. Johnson, coal dealer.
Masonic Temple, three story brick.
Ledbetter & Bledsoe's law office.
Douglas & Douglas, architects.
Barry & Norman's law office.
Dr. Ben F. Garrison's office.
Dr. Bogies's office.
London & Banks, booksellers and stationers.
G. M. Yarbrough's music house.
Ben F. Garrison's drug store.
Mrs. A. Rawlongs, milliner, Frank Frensley building.
Mrs. Pranter's shooting gallery.
T. N. Coleman's drug store.
Tandell & King's land office.
Redfield & Son's insurance office.
Dr. Folsom's office.
Dr. Booth's office.

T. B. Johnson's meat market.
John Steed's restaurant.
Chinee laundry.
Campbell, Fowler & Kendrick's law office.
United States court house & jail.

Ardmorite, daily newspaper and job printing office, two story frame.
C. B. Kendrick's law office.
R. E. Lee's law office.
Boyd & McBride's billiard hall.
J. B. Smith & Co.'s two story brick building.

C. A. Whitehurst, dry goods and groceries.
Rennie & McClure's law office.
Dick & Brown's law office.
Stephens & Co. Real estate office.
Lum Johnson's insurance office.
Alex Pannell's real estate office.
Mike Sneed's sleeping apartment.
Fielder Bros., general merchandise.
W. O. Duston, Big Cash Store, dry goods.
J. B. Spragins & Co., hardware, wagons and farm implements, two story brick.
M. E. Wyse, general merchandise.
C. Miller's barber shop.
Wallace & Wallace, fruit and restaurant.
J. W. Randol, gen. merchandise.
George Frasher, cream bakery and confectionery.
D. M. Spiegle & Co., confectionery and restaurant.
Clark's barber shop.
Ardmore Hardware Company, two story brick.
A. Felkner, grocers.
J. C. Thompson's law office
Dr. Alvis' office.
Dr. Adams' dental office.
O. W. Patchell's law office.
Dr. A. C. Bell's office.
Frame & Green's city drug store, two story brick.
Riner & Scivally, dry goods, millinery and groceries, two story brick.
J. N. Jordon's shoe shop.
Bottoms & Hamilton's shoe store.
Patrick & McFadden, tailors.
W. S. King, jeweler
Palsoe drug store, two story brick.
Gus Aaronson, groceries.
Parker, Noble & Colbert, wholesale groceries, two story brick.
R. Hardy's two story building.
Drs. Hardy & Scaife's office.
Stones & Dent, printing co.
Potterif, Hardy & Hardy's law office
Dr. A. E. Walter's dental office.

Lebo's meat market.
Douglas' barber shop.
Abbott's pool hall.
Hams & Sloan, groceries.
Harper & Cecil's livery stable,
J. C. Meachim's grain and feed store.
City restaurant.
Havens' blacksmith shop.
R. T. Dallas, groceries.

Judge J. C. Gibbon's court room.
Shaddick & Cox, blacksmith shop.
W. F. Whittington's two story Sherman House.
Chickasaw Machine Works.

The City National Bank, two story brick building.
Glenn & People's dry goods store.
Frankfurt Bros.' Dry goods store.
First National Bank, two story stone structure.
Johnson, Cruce & Cruce's brick occupied by the postoffice and J. S. O'Mesley.
Maxey Grocery Company.
W. C. Downing's photo gallery.

The law offices of Herbert & Lewis, A Eddleman and Judge Stuart Dennie were warmed up over the two banks, and when the window glass began to break it was thought they would go, but they only of all the legal fraternity in Ardmore, occupy their old offices.

The above list is probably lacking in a few names, but in the absence of an official report, it is as nearly correct as is possible.
The loss to property is now conservatively estimated at about $750,000, insurance $250,000. It was a great fire and one that will long be felt, and remembered. It has, we trust, taught a valuable lesson, that of the necessity of water and organized protection. This lesson, while a dear one, will bear valuable fruit in the future. The calamity has thoroughly demonstrated the courage and enterprise of our people. They are not the kind to pine over disaster.

Great was, great is, and great will Ardmore ever be.


Map: Caddo, Oklahoma
Map 19:
Caddo, Oklahoma and towns
where our Coxes settled

The Town of Caddo, Indian Territory
now in Oklahoma
[author unknown]

This is a brief history of Caddo and excerpts taken from the newspapers printed at Caddo, Choctaw Nation starting in January 1874.

Caddo received its post office in 1872 when the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad built through Indian Territory. It was a typical boomtown, invaded with a flow of settlers from the Old South and Texas, as well as European immigrants (Swedes, Germans and Irish).

The route of the Butterfield Stage Coach was only six miles west of Caddo at Nail's Crossing over Blue River and ten miles north at Boggy Depot. With the coming of the railroad, families who lived near Nail's Crossing and Boggy Depot moved to Caddo.

The Choctaws prospered in agriculture. Wilson N. Jones was one of the wealthiest men in the territory and was principal chief of the Choctaws. His home was twelve miles east of Caddo at Cade. Sympathetic with the South during the Civil War, the Choctaws joined the Southern Confederacy. The Confederate army occupied the Choctaw Nation with troops stationed at Boggy Depot, Fort Washita, Fort McCullough and other points near Caddo.

The following were businesses at Caddo in 1874: C. E. Harkins, Attorney; C. J. Williams, M.D. Physician and Surgeon; D.A. Folsom, Groceries; U.M. Cooper, Photographer; J.B. Jones, Surgeon & Physician; Walner & Welch, General Merchandise; Marchand & Fenlon, General Merchandise; Frank Fox, Gro. & Notions; M. Haller, Boot & Shoe Shop; Hancock's Gro.; M. M. Impson & Co.; Meat Market; G.W. Harlan & A. A. Conine, Blacksmith & Wagon Shop; A.D. Chase, Nursery; O.W. Brown, Carpenter & Builder; Dr. Jones, City Drug Store.

November 20, 1874,
1st Sabbath, Rev. Allen Wright; 2nd Sabbath, Rev. J.S. Murrow; 3rd Sabbath, Rev. Mr. Collet; 4th Sabbath, Rev. R.J. Hogue, Pastor.

R.P. Jones was School Prof. W.A. Welch was Postmaster, Jimmy Clinton had a restaurant. Doctor E.J. Lemon.

Friday, Nov. 13, 1874, Last Sunday at Forbes LeFlores's, John Donnelly & A.M. Lafferty had a fight, Donnelly shot Lafferty 3 times. He died Monday, and was buried yesterday.


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